More information: Wei-Bo Gao, et al. “Teleportation-based realization of an optical quantum two-qubit entangling gate.” PNAS Early Edition. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1005720107 (PhysOrg.com) — Taking a step toward the realization of futuristic quantum technologies, a team of physicists from China and Germany has demonstrated a key element – an entangling gate – of a quantum teleportation scheme proposed more than 10 years ago. The entangling gate serves as a fundamental building block for applications such as long-distance quantum communication and practical quantum computers. This diagram shows the experimental set-up of a quantum CNOT gate. Image credit: Wei-Bo Gao, et al. ©2010 PNAS. Using degrees of freedom to get hyperentanglement Explore further The scientists, Wei-Bo Gao, Jian-Wei Pan, and coauthors from the University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei, Anhui, China, and the University of Heidelberg in Heidelberg, Germany, have published their study in an early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The work builds on earlier research by D. Gottesman and I. L. Chuang, who theoretically showed in 1999 that a quantum gate can be built by teleporting qubits (the basic units of quantum information) with the help of certain entangled states. In quantum teleportation techniques, unknown quantum states are transferred from one location to another through the use of entanglement. One of the key requirements of the “GC scheme” is the ability to perform single-qubit logic operations for quantum computations.In the new study, Gao, Pan, and coauthors have experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of the GC scheme by demonstrating a logic gate based on quantum teleportation for two photonic qubits. Further, the scientists demonstrated the entangling gate using two different methods – one with a six-photon interferometer to realize controlled-NOT gates, and the other with four-photon hyperentanglement to realize controlled-Phase gates. “The logic gate is the basic unit in a quantum computer, as a classical logic gate is in a classical computer,” coauthor Yu-Ao Chen of the University of Science and Technology of China told PhysOrg.com. “The difference with the quantum logic gate is that it involves quantum superposition. The controlled-NOT gate, together with single-qubit operations, is sufficient to perform all logic operations needed for quantum computation. In classical computation, it is similar, and it can be easily achieved by measurement and feedforward. However, in the quantum world, the states cannot be measured directly without irrevocably changing them. This makes the demonstration of a CNOT gate more difficult.”In their study, the scientists showed how each of the two methods could be used to entangle qubits, transfer qubit states, and enable quantum logic operations. The researchers also confirmed that both logic gates demonstrate genuine entanglement, and showed that the controlled-Phase gate achieves quantum parallelism, meaning that the gate cannot be reproduced by local operations and classical communications. While the experiments here represent an important step toward the realization of practical quantum computers, there are still many other components to work on in order to develop an advanced optical system in the future. As the scientists explained, one of the advantages of the current scheme is that it is inherently fault-tolerant.“Our experiment shows a proof-of-principle that the GC scheme can be implemented to construct a linear optical computational hierarchy,” Chen said. “The GC scheme is a protocol that could potentially be implemented in a real-world optical quantum computer because it is inherently fault-tolerant, which is a very basic request for any large-scale computation protocol.”As Chen noted, some of the potential applications of quantum computing include the efficient simulation of complex quantum physics, chemistry systems, or materials systems; the ability to quickly solve certain mathematical problems; and database searching. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Physicists demonstrate teleportation-based optical quantum entangling gate (2010, December 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-12-physicists-teleportation-based-optical-quantum-entangling.html Copyright 2010 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.
Carp barriers to Great Lakes may fall Efforts are underway to try and get the river locks on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal closed in order to stop the spread of two invasive species of fish known as the Asian carp and the Snakehead. Explore further Citation: Efforts to close canal to Great Lakes (2011, August 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-efforts-canal-great-lakes.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com Asian carp DNA has been discovered in Lake Calumet in Illinois despite an electric fence that has been placed downriver in an effort to stop them from passing. Last week biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources scoured Lake Calumet for the Asian carp but found none.Asian carp has been found in the Mississippi River and as close as 25 miles from Lake Michigan. Biologists believe they must keep them out of the Great Lakes or many native fish species will be threatened.But Asian carp is not their only concern anymore. The Northern Snakehead is a fish that is raising far more fear when it comes to the delicate ecosystem in the Great Lakes. This fish is known to be able to survive icy waters, is a ravenous predator, breathes air and is able to survive out of water for days as long as it stays moist.The other fear is the Snakehead’s ability to survive out of water. Not only can they breathe air, but they can wiggle out of the water and move on land in search of other watering holes. Back in 2008, a local Arkansas farmer Russell Bonner found one on the side of the road near a flooded culvert. Because it was not a species of fish he recognized he picked it up and threw it in the back of his truck. The next day, expecting to find a dead fish, he discovered the fish was still alive and called the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission.It has been discovered in nine states ranging from California to Maryland and they are spreading in the Potomac River and biologists believe they may already be in the Mississippi river as well. Last year, Time magazine named the Snakehead to its top 10 list of invasive species and last month they were listed as one of 10 invasive species that create a high risk of invading the Mississippi River Basin and the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal.Between the Snakehead and the Asian carp and the risk they pose to the Great Lakes, biologists believe it is essential to permanently block the canal waterway and protect the Great Lakes. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further © 2013 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The power company advantage is that it can improve systems before serious problems surface. The company believes its project will realize real value in fewer outages and lower electric bills for customers. So far, 400 malfunctioning transformers were sensed before they caused a power outage, said FPL, and smart meters allowed the power company to solve smaller problems without having to send out crews.The ongoing success of Florida’s smart grid in improving efficiencies and reducing outages will be worth tracking in light of how the FPL implementation might motivate improvements elsewhere in the U.S., according to energy watchers. The prevailing attitude is that, saddled with aging architectures, the way to avoid power outages is through monitoring a smartgrid to stem problems from getting out of hand. The Florida effort is being applauded because of the large scale of the FPL’s grid.Commenting on the meters and other devices used, SmartGridNews.com observed how all that equipment is networked and “sending data back to the utility, data that can be used to identify problems before they cause an outage – and reduce the length and area affected if outages do happen.”Said FPL President Eric Silagy, “While no electric system can be fully stormproof, and we have been working to strengthen the grid and improve its resiliency for some time, the acceleration of this effort will help us get businesses up and running and residents’ lives back to normal more quickly after storms.” Citation: Florida electric utility completes smartgrid installations (2013, May 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-florida-electric-smartgrid.html Benefits of a ‘smart’ power grid in debated (Phys.org) —Florida Power & Lighting has completed its $800 million smart grid upgrade, with installations of 4.5 million smart meters. Smart meters are digital devices that use radio frequencies to communicate with automated feeder switches and other devices on poles and power lines. The meters can measure a building’s use of electricity. FPL installed 4.5 million smart meters alongside more than 10,000 sensors. FPL says the benefit to customers is that by installing the smart meters each customer can get on the Internet to see the power being used by the hour, day, and month. The customer can also see bill estimates based on current usage patterns. FPL believes more information can lead to customers making more informed choices about usage and costs. Overall, a smart grid can automatically sense and gather data about consumer habits.
Chatbot Eugene put to Turing test wins first prize But wait another minute. What is the Loebner Prize? This is an annual competition created by businessman Hugh Loebner. The competition is an embodiment of the Turing-test affair; the chatbots try to fool the judges into assessing their answers are from humans. With reference to mathematician Alan Turing in the 1950s, the contest sets out to stage an event around Turing’s suggestion that if a computer answered questions as convincing as a human could, then the machine could reasonably be said to be thinking. The Turing Test emerged as a way to assess the intelligence of computer programs. Loebner has offered a prize of $100,000 for the computer program that meets Turing’s standard for artificial intelligence but no chatbot creator has ever achieved that level and the top-tier cash has gone unclaimed. The four finalists at the 2013 event in Northern Ireland had to undergo four rounds of questioning with the competition judges. The Mitsuku chatbot as conversationalist was declared the most convincing. Worswick told the BBC that he started programming chatbots in order to attract eyeballs to his dance music website and he created a teddy bear to do so. Visitors wanted to talk to the teddy bear more than they wanted to hear any of the music. In 2004 he was commissioned by a games company to write a chatbot and, after many conversations, the back and forths helped Worswick refine the chatbot and improve its capabilities.Interestingly, Worswick, before the September competition, reported in early August on his Mitsuku site how he was very busy working on Mitsuku getting her ready for the Loebner Prize. “The main thing I am concentrating on is to try and get rid of as many of her robotic answers as possible. Things like ‘Sorry, my eye is not attached at the moment’ or ‘I have no heart but I have a power supply’ will give her away as a program straight away…” Nonetheless, he said, “just getting to the final four is a great result and so anything else is a bonus.”That bonus came over the weekend, and on Monday, Worswick said, “Well I’ve just returned from the Loebner Prize in Derry, Northern Ireland” with some “fantastic” news. “It was a great day and a very unexpected result for me, as I was just planning on using the day to get experience of being in the final before trying for a win in 2014.” He added that Monday was a strange day for him as well; he usually has at most 500 site visitors to mitsuku.com but, on Monday he had “9,532 visitors from all corners of the globe, as well as being mentioned on various sites around the net.” Citation: Mitsuku chatbot has good answers for the Loebner Prize (2013, September 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-09-mitsuku-chatbot-good-loebner-prize.html Explore further (Phys.org) —A chatbot named Mitsuku has won the Loebner Prize 2013, announced over the weekend, beating out three other contestants for the top prize of a bronze medal and $4,000. Mitsuku’s creator is Steve Worswick, Mitsuku’s botmaster. But wait a minute. What is a chatbot? A chatbot is a humanlike character with conversational skills which is simulated through artificial intelligence. Eliza, back in 1964 and 1966, was the first step into programmed chatterbots, designed to simulate a conversation with one or more human users. The Eliza program was based on a human mode of interaction typified by a Rogerian therapist trained not to make any creative input to a conversation, but instead only to keep it going so that patients could explore their own feelings. “Talking to Rogerian therapist is very like talking to a brick wall with a slightly clever echo,” wrote Mike James in iProgrammer. Credit: Steve Worswick © 2013 Phys.org More information: www.mitsuku.com/ This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Prior to conducting the study, Soto preregistered the studyhypotheses, design, materials, and analysis plans on the Open ScienceFramework. Ultimately, the study represents a first step in examining the reliability of trait–outcomes associations. Soto does note certain aspects of the LOOPR Project that mayaccount for some of the differences in the findings. Whereas the replicationattempts were based on self-report surveys completed by groups of onlineparticipants, some of the original studies collected data in a different way(i.e., following people over time), used a different method (i.e., in-personinterviews), or drew from a different sample (i.e., community-based sample). Whenboth the original study and replication attempt used self-report measures, forexample, the replication effect sizes tended to be larger. “This suggests that personality research can still benefitfrom current efforts to improve the robustness of our science,” he says. “The key reason for optimism is that the replicability estimates from this project are pretty high — true personality–outcome associations don’t seem to be outnumbered by false positives or flukes,” says Soto. “However, the replicability estimates are still a bit lower than we would expect if the personality literature didn’t have any problems with false positive results, selective reporting, or publication bias.” A total of more than 6,100 adults, from four online samples of participants, completed surveys for the study. The surveys included a version of the widely used Big Five Inventory to measure personality traits, as well as various measures of life outcomes, such as career and relationship success, political beliefs, and criminal history. The LOOPR Project aimed to replicate 78 previously identified trait-outcome associations, which had been noted in a comprehensive literature review published in 2006. The project specifically examined links between the Big Five personality traits — openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism — and 48 individual, interpersonal, and institutional outcomes, which ranged from subjective well-being to personal behavior to occupational performance. “The LOOPR Project has generated a large and rich data set,so I’m excited to collaborate with other scientists to bring these data to bearon other key issues in our field,” Soto says. “These include updating andextending our understanding of how personality relates with consequential lifeoutcomes, and testing the degree to which these personality-outcomeassociations generalize across factors like age, gender, and socioeconomicstatus.” All data,materials, and analysis code for this study are publicly available on the Open Science Framework.The preregistrationprotocol and revisionsto the preregistration are also online. This article has received badges for OpenData, Open Materials, and Preregistration. Studies showing links between personality traits and life outcomes, such as marital stability and vocational achievements, provide a reasonably accurate map of the relationship between personality and various aspects of one’s life, according to findings from a large-scale replication project. The findings are published in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science. The results of the project “provide grounds for cautious optimism about the personality–outcome literature,” says study author Christopher J. Soto, a psychology researcher at Colby College. “Like a lot of researchers, I have been following recentdiscussions about the robustness of our scientific findings with greatinterest, but I was genuinely uncertain about how much this problem generalizedto my own key area of interest: personality psychology,” he explains. To findout, Soto developed the Life Outcomes of Personality Replication (LOOPR)Project. The analyses showed that the majority of the replication attempts were successful — that is, the replication attempts reproduced previously identified trait–outcome links about 85% of the time. But the LOOPR Project results showed associations between personality traits and life outcomes that were often not as strong as those originally published.