The ocean is often depicted as teeming with life, from crustaceans and fish to whales and other mammals, but in fact large swaths of it are virtual deserts, populated only by bacteria and a handful of particularly hardy species.Prime examples of such bacterial hot spots are oxygen minimum zones, regions that play a key role in biogeochemical cycling, but remain difficult for scientists to study.In an effort to better understand those cycles, John L. Loeb Associate Professor of the Natural Sciences David Johnston, Ph.D. student Andrew Masterson, and research assistant Erin Beirne worked with colleagues to develop a tool to measure levels of seawater sulfate in situ, giving researchers a clearer picture of how much sulfur cycling is taking place in oxygen minimum zones. The work is described in a recent paper in Nature.“In these regions, as soon as the oxygen goes away, it’s all these other biogeochemical cycles that become very interesting,” Johnston said. “The challenge has been in trying to find a way to go in and make a measurement in these environments, or to do indirect experiments to get at the rates of cycling and what is actually happening in terms of the chemistry.”Until recently, Johnston said, questions of how microorganisms in oxygen minimum zones absorbed and metabolized nitrogen had received the lion’s share of attention among scientists. In recent years, however, a growing number of researchers have begun to suggest that while nitrogen plays a big role in these regions, the sulfur cycle is far more important.To get at that question, Johnston and colleagues developed a tool that uses oxygen isotopes to indicate how much sulfur cycling is occurring.“The way the cycle works is sulfate, which consists of one sulfur atom and four oxygen atoms, is reduced to sulfide, which has no oxygen atoms, and can then be fully re-oxidized back to sulfate,” Johnston said. “What we’ve developed is an isotope tool — what we can do is measure the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater sulfate in these regions, and use that as a measurement to assess how much cycling is going on.”Armed with a data set made up of hundreds of previously published measurements, Johnston and Masterson used the tool to create a simple model outlining how the sulfur cycle works in a water column.“We came up with a solution that’s both very exciting and points toward the need for additional work,” Johnston said. “The exciting part is it’s a quantifiable signal, it can be measured in situ, and it should be very, very robust. The part that needs more work is that it depends on how long the water sits in that zone, and that’s one of the greatest outstanding questions in these environments.”“If you have particles sinking at a constant rate, your ability to pick up that signal depends on how long that water spends in contact with those particles,” Masterson said. “If water is cycling through very quickly, it’s not going to have a chance to reduce that sulfate.”The end result, Johnston said, is that while their tool works, it comes with the caveat that results can vary depending on how long researchers assume water stays in the oxygen minimum zone.If researchers assume a longer residence time, the tool shows that previous estimates of sulfur cycling were grossly overestimated, he said. Shorter residence times show the estimates could be possible, but other factors suggest that they may still be unlikely.“Ultimately, the math dictates that it’s all a function of how long the water sits there,” Johnston said. “Going forward, we need to hone in on those bounds, because it’s still possible sulfur is a big player.”
Governor Reynolds will hold a press conference at 11:00 AM — you can listen on AM-1300 KGLO and kgloam.com, as well as view here or on Governor Reynolds Facebook pagehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MOe4pvSnTLM
7 May 2012 Grant gets women and girls into golf Over 4000 women and girls were encouraged to start and stay in golf last year, thanks to a special grant for county activities – that’s up by more than 1000 on the previous year. The Women and Girls’ Grant, funded by the former English Women’s Golf Association and distributed by the England Golf Partnership, supported activities by 30 County Golf Partnerships and two county associations. The money helped provide opportunities for women and girls to get into golf and to continue playing. Altogether, 4017 were involved during 2011 – that’s an increase of over 1000 on the previous 12 months. Of those, 67 per cent were girls, while 33 per cent were women. On average, 126 participants were involved in each county through this scheme. Nationally, over 500 people have either taken up club membership or are considering it, while over 1300 have attended further coaching sessions or are planning to. The County Golf Partnerships also provided activities for women and girls through their other programmes, meaning the range of opportunities for them has significantly improved. Commenting on the 2011 grant scheme, Richard Flint, England Golf Development Manager said: “Providing opportunities for women and girls is essential to help grow the game in England and, through the work of the CGPs, England Golf can provide a coordinated approach to delivering.” This scheme is continuing in 2012 with partnerships offering programmes to recruit and retain more women and girls as part of their overall focus on adult participation.
Pittsburgh Steelers defensive end Brett Keisel (99) is introduced before the start of an NFL preseason football game against the Carolina Panthers on Thursday, Aug. 28, 2014 in Pittsburgh. It was Keisel’s first game this pre-season, since re-signing with the Steelers. The Panthers won 10-0. (AP Photo/Gene Puskar)The Steelers enter the 2014 season coming off of two consecutive 8-8 seasons. While last year the Steelers nearly slipped into the playoffs after finishing the season strong; the black and gold don’t want to put themselves in a position where they need to rely on other teams to help them in. The 0-4 start they had to last season clearly dug a hole too big to get out of.To open this season, they take on the in division rival Browns. The Browns should be improved and have an entire new coaching staff to help rebuild the once proud franchise. They drafted Johnny Manziel and expect big things out of him down the line. They’ll certainly miss Josh Gordon this season and in the end this is a team the Steelers should and need to beat if they want to consider themselves a threat to win the division.Here are the Keys to A Steelers Victory:1. The black and gold need to come out strong. They need to avoid early mistakes like turnovers and penalties and move the ball down the field effectively, utilizing the no huddle offense that Big Ben loves so much.2. Even with the no huddle offense, they need to run a balanced attack. LeVeon Bell and to a lesser degree LaGarrete Blount need to put up the yardage needed to control the clock and keep the defense honest. Bell should go for at least 100 yards in order for the ground attack to be effective enough.3. The defense needs to rattle Brian Hoyer. Hoyer will already be looking over his shoulder at Johnny Football and will be prone to making mistakes because he’ll be trying so hard not to make one. The defense needs to pound Hoyer into the ground and deflate his confidence early and often.4. They can’t let the Browns hang around. The worst thing the team can do is let a mediocre Browns team hang around and keep their confidence. If the Steelers can get up big early, they should be able to coast to an easy win.Here are a Few Things to Watch:1.Ryan Shazier-Shazier will be on the third linebacker in Steeler history to start a season opener as a rookie, joining Jack Lambert and Kendrell Bell. Shazier, the teams number one draft pick in May, appears to be the real deal. Look for him to make big plays in clutch situations.2. Markus Wheaton-Wheaton enters his second season as the number two starting receiver. Wheaton only netted six catches in his rookie year but the team expects big things out of him in year two. It will be interesting to see if he’s up for the challenge or if he’ll let Lance Moore or even Martavis Bryant pass him up.3. Dri Archer-Archer is another rookie who may be a big impact guy. He’ll see a lot of action out of the slot and as a third down back. He has the potential to be a special teams ace and is a true burner. Speed kills and he’s got a lot of it.4. Big Ben-He’s the leader of this team, the heart and soul. He is not going to want to start the season off like they did last year and he’s going to be instrumental in the development and growth of all the young talent on the offensive side of the ball. Watch how much of a leader he’s become.Mike Pelaia hosts the website Steel Nation Association www.steelnationassociation.com- Covering the Steelers and helping Children’s Hospital All Day Everyday. You can e-mail him at [email protected]
ARCADIA, Calif. (Dec. 31, 2015)–Owner/trainer Wesley Ward’s Shrinking Violet returns to Southern California to defend her title against 11 other older fillies and mares in Sunday’s Grade II, $200,000 Monrovia Stakes at 6 ½ furlongs down Santa Anita’s hillside turf course.A well beaten ninth as the even money favorite in the 6 ½ furlong turf Kentucky Downs Ladies Sprint Stakes Sept. 14, Shrinking Violet was a 4 ¾ length winner of the five furlong turf Daisycutter Handicap two starts back at Del Mar on Aug. 7. A 6-year-old mare by Congaree, Shrinking Violet’s lone start down Santa Anita’s unique hillside layout resulted in a length and a quarter score in last year’s Monrovia.With Kent Desormeaux engaged to ride her back, Shrinking Violet has good tactical speed and the ability to kick clear when called upon. Desormeaux, who was aboard for last year’s Monrovia win, has guided her to three wins from five tries. With eight wins from 20 starts, Shrinking Violet has earnings of $456,528.Well beaten going one mile on turf in the Grade I Matriarch Stakes at Del Mar Nov. 29, Brazilian-bred Baruta returns to the site of her Grade III Sen. Ken Maddy Stakes win two starts back on Oct. 25 and will break from the far outside with Flavien Prat. Trained by Richard Mandella, the 7-year-old Baruta is 7-2-3-1 down the hill and will be bidding for her seventh lifetime win from 23 starts. Owned and bred by Rio Dois Irmaos, LLC, she has earnings of $313,808.In her only start at Santa Anita, trainer Arnaud Delacour’s Ageless was a close fourth, beaten three quarters of a length in the Grade I Breeders’ Cup Turf Sprint on Nov. 1, 2014. A winner of Woodbine’s Grade III Royal North Stakes at six furlongs on turf two starts back July 26, the 7-year-old Kentucky-bred mare by Successful Appeal comes off a head victory in a minor stakes going 5 ½ furlongs on turf at Keeneland Oct. 9.Owned by Lael Stables, Ageless will be handled by her regular rider, Julien Leparoux, who was on holiday in his native France the past week. Ageless has an enviable lifetime mark of 22-11-4-4, with earnings of $713,130.In what ranks as one of the best recent claims in Southern California, trainer Matt Chew haltered California-bred Singing Kitty for $32,000 on Dec. 11, 2014, and guided her through a 2015 campaign that included three stakes wins from eight starts and year-end earnings of $267,800.Most recently third, beaten 1 ¾ lengths in the one mile turf Grade III Autumn Miss Stakes Oct. 17, the 4-year-old Ministers Wild Cat filly seeks her first graded win in the Monrovia. Owned by Chris Aulds and Peter Jeong, Singing Kitty drew the rail and will be ridden for the first time by Gary Stevens. Her overall mark stands at 13-5-1-1, and she has earnings of $332,988.The complete field for the Grade II Monrovia Stakes, to be run as the seventh race on a nine-race program Sunday, with jockeys and weights in post position order: Singing Kitty, Gary Stevens, 118; My Year Is a Day, Tyler Baze, 118; Heavens Stairway, Iggy Puglisi, 118; Our Pure Creation, Fernando Perez, 118; Prize Exhibit, Santiago Gonzalez, 123; Shrinking Violet, Kent Desormeaux, 120; Velvet Mesquite, Rafael Bejarano, 118; Illuminant, Mike Smith, 118; Lutine Belle, Alex Solis, 118; Theatre Star, Drayden Van Dyke, 118; Ageless, Julien Leparoux, 118, and Baruta, Flavien Prat, 118.First post time on Sunday is at 12:30 p.m. Admission gates open at 10:30 a.m. –30–